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Exposure to anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy is one of the most common potentially teratogenic events: 1 in 250 (0.4%). The potential teratogenic effects include midface and digit hypoplasia, deficits in learning or cognitive function, major malformations and effects on head size and growth re ...
Exposures of concern during pregnancy are common. The spectrum of potential effects includes miscarriage, stillbirth, major malformations, growth restriction, effects on IQ and abruption placenta. The teratogenic exposures are quite varied and include medications, maternal diseases (diabetes melli ...
A telephone survey of a random sample of the U.S. population in 1998-1999 indicated that 4 of the top 40 prescription or over-the-counter medications used in the past week by women between 18 and 44 years of age were antidepressants or anti-anxiety agents, with 6% of this sample of 595 women reporti ...
Retinoic acid (vitamin A) has been used as a model teratogen in experimental animals (Shenefelt, 1972), so it really came as no surprise that ingestion of excess vitamin A preparations (25,000 IU or more as retinol or retinyl esters) was associated with the occurrence of birth defects in some cases. ...
Neural crest cells (NCC) form in the human embryo during the third to fifth weeks of pregnancy, within the neural folds that delineate the neural plate from the ectoderm. They migrate throughout the body, integrating nearly every organ. NCC derivatives include the neurons and support cells of the en ...
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